Coronavirus an emerging threat from the disregard of Biodiversity

Following the advice of the Emergency Committee, WHO Director-General has declared the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Three times so far in the 21st century, novel coronaviruses have emerged that could potentially cause a deadly pandemic—SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2003, MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) in 2012, and now 2019-nCoV emanating from Wuhan, China. Despite a similar SARS -CoV outbreak has already happened in 2002, various international healthcare organizations have not taken it as a challenge to solve the fundamental question it raises again and again, why time to time a virus species is emerging as a pathogenic threat to the human being. The international Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee after thorough analysis and validation has declared that it’s an emergency/epidemic which has affected more than 7700 cases with a confirmation of 303 death trolls till now. The list is growing since the new cares are being reported from different parts of the world like USA, U.K. Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.A.E, Germany, Taiwan, Japan, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Nepal, Canada, South Korea, Nepal and now India too has confirmed couple of cases of individuals travelled back to India from China. The preliminary evolutionary and molecular epidemiological analysis of this new virus and phylogenetic tree of the 15 available whole genome sequence of 2019-nCoV and 12 whole genome sequences of 2019-nCoV and 12 highly similar whole genome sequences available in gene bank (5 from SARS, 2 from MERS and 5 from Bat SARS-like Coronavirus) has widely been studied for therapeutic interventions and discovery of various targets. Studies with various tools and approaches confirmed various similarities between Spike glycoprotein, Nucleocapsid of 2019- nCoV and SARS –CoV however phylogenetic tree showed that 2019.nCoV significantly clustered with Bat SARS-like Coronavirus sequence. These genetic analysis suggest that this virus emerged from a virus related to SARS. Various research investigations and Clinical samples analysis have strong evidences that Chinese horseshoe bat is the major cause of spreading of virus from animal to human being. A bat can host many different viruses without getting sick. The reason for carrying number of viruses is one of their distinctive qualities which lies in the evolutionary adaptations to flight which has changed their immune system. In a research report in 2018 it has been demonstrated and recognized that bats handle a molecular mechanism called DNA sensing. Since they are the only mammals evolved for flying their ability to fly has demanded a high input of energy consumption. This energy requirement is so huge when addressing for mammalian system that their cells break down and release bits of DNA which might causes an invasion of disease causing microorganisms. However in bats, evolution has drained the system, which would normally cause inflammation as it fought the viruses. Now these viruses are spreading from person to person a well so there is an urgent need of attention to be paid by public healthcare professionals, partners, international healthcare agencies and Government bodies as well to understand the scenario and series of events in new virus creation which has more divergent effect on human populations with minimum cell machinery the virus required and connecting these links to the evolutionary reasons for emergence of new virus species. The measures or steps to be taken to avoid new viruses emergence.
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